Every rabbit that presents to the veterinary hospital should undergo a physical examination that includes an oral examination. The quiz is still a good way to test your knowledge! There are four Use V-trays and foam wedges to prevent rotation of the patient. Use V-trays and foam wedges to prevent rotation of the patient. As prey species, small mammals mask signs of illness and injury, especially when in an unfamiliar environment. Rabbit is herbivorous animal and depends on cellulose based food. Rabbit owners should be instructed to feed unlimited high-fiber foods.3,5 Grass, a good-quality timothy hay, and fibrous, green, leafy vegetables are favorable foods that are high in fiber and encourage the grinding motions of the jaw that benefit attrition of the teeth.7 Rabbits require a diet that provides enough calcium for sufficient mineralization of their continually growing teeth and surrounding bone structures, but not so much calcium that urinary tract disease is a risk.5 The ideal amount of dietary calcium for a rabbit is 0.5% to 1.0%.5, Barn-dried hay may not contain as much vitamin D as sun-dried hays.5 Alfalfa hay is very high in calcium.7 It is a good choice for rapidly growing young rabbits but should not be fed as a sole source of hay for adult rabbits.5 If possible, rabbits should be allowed to graze outside on a variety of grasses and weeds while basking in the sun, which helps prevent a vitamin D deficiency.5, Pellets are not a necessary part of a rabbit’s diet. Brown S. Rabbit dental disease. The dental formula for rabbits is 2 x (12/1, C 0/0, P 3/2, M 3/3) = 28. Use sandbags to apply gentle pressure to the back of the patient’s neck to ensure the head is not tilted ventrally. Lennox A. Some authors use the term aradicular hypsodont, indicating that the teeth have Article #2 ABSTRACT: CE This is indicated, for example, as follows: Rangifer (32/34) (which means that they will have either 32 or 34 teeth in total), or Dasypus (28-32) which means that they will have between 28 and 32 teeth in total. iasp-pain.org/Taxonomy#Pain. The front limbs can remain in natural position; ensure they are out of the x-ray beam. A black line (A) extends from the lateral margin of the mandibular incisors to the medial margin of the mandibular ramus on the same side. Pull the front legs caudally. The article you have read is no longer available for 1 hour of continuing education credit. However, this is not the case for baby rabbits. Sarah has written numerous articles and lectured extensively on exotic animal topics. Bruxism, a loud tooth grinding, is a common clinical sign of pain in small mammals. It has no canines in jaw. Ferrets are reluctant to curl up while resting and commonly squint their eyes. When rabbits are fed an inappropriate diet, their teeth can overgrow, resulting in malocclusions and other abnormalities. For instance, the incisors can grow at a rate of about 2mm to 2.4mm per week. The length, color, shape, quality of enamel, and occlusal edge can be assessed. Lagomorphs have special adaptations to help obtain nutrients from a diet comprising large quantities of grasses. The dental formula of rabbits and hares is: I2/1; C0/0; P3/2; M3/3. However, the endoscope permits substantial magnification, making small lesions easily detectable. Powered by WordPress. Ferrets are reluctant to curl up while resting and commonly squint their eyes. The dental formula of rabbit is 2 (I2/1 C0/0 PM3/2 M3/3). They have three molars on the maxilla and three on their mandible. In lagomorphs, the location of the two smaller rudimentary maxillary incisors (peg teeth) directly caudal to the two large grooved incisors is a double-row dentition. Deciduous don't have any molars. While the jaw is in resting position, upper and lower premolars and molars do not touch since the lower jaw is narrower than the upper one (anisognathism). To help handle these kinds of foods, their teeth are functionally and anatomically adapted. 1–5 The premolars and molars are anatomically identical, making differentiation of each tooth challenging. Dentition pertains to the development of teeth and their arrangement in the mouth.In particular, it is the characteristic arrangement, kind, and number of teeth in a given species at a given age. She has fostered birds for the Des Moines Animal Rescue League since 2014. Use foam or rolled hand towels to support the neck of the patient and tilt the patient’s nose toward the table top, achieving a ventrodorsal position. Hence the teeth can be expressed by using the initials - I, C, Pm and P4. Cheek teeth should not extend outside of these reference lines. Assessing pain in small mammals can be a difficult task, but it is not impossible. 2 Thus, the premolars and molars are simply called the cheek teeth. When the jaw is at rest, the cheek teeth do not touch. It may display a hunched posture, arch its back, or press its abdomen to the floor.3. The formula for permanent rabbit teeth is: 2 (I2/1 C0/0 P3/2 M2-3/3). Craniocaudal view of rabbit skull. In this species there is a single annual molt. They have 6 incisor teeth and 22 cheek teeth (molars and premolars). Because the formula is for one side of the mouth the total number of teeth is the total in the formula x 2. The deciduous incisors will begin to shed just before or immediately after birth. Congenital causes include prognathism, brachygnathism, and other jaw malformations.2 For example, a malformation of the incisors may cause improper wear of the cheek teeth, eventually leading to the development of sharp points and overgrowth of the cheek teeth. Merskey H, Bogduk N, eds. (A) Cheek teeth. Use of anatomical reference lines. Appropriate multimodal analgesia techniques can and should be used in small mammals. More hay please...Prolonged chewing of tough, abrasive foods such as hay causes rapid tooth wear in rabbits and herbivorous rodents. Radiography is an essential diagnostic tool that should be performed for all patients with suspected dental disease.1 The bulk of the teeth and the supporting structures is below the gumline, hidden from view during gross oral examination. A. Molar cutters. Place the patient in lateral recumbency. Recognizing and assessing pain in small mammals can be challenging. These signs may include anorexia, lethargy, lameness, reduced grooming, abnormal vocalizations, aggression when usually docile, or any deviation from normal behavior.3 Many small mammals in pain hide under bedding or substrate. 16 deciduous, 28 permanent - formula for permanent teeth is: 2 (I2/1 C0/0 P3/2 M2-3/3). Accessed October 2016. The space between the incisors and premolars is called the/a. A yellow line (C) highlights the mandibular cortical bone. The part embedded into the jaw is often referred to as a reserve crown. Two yellow lines (C) highlight the medial cortex of the mandible, which should appear straight, smooth, and symmetric. Causes of dental disease are categorized as congenital or acquired. The white line extends the height of the tympanic bulla. Rabbits are unique in that they have 4 maxillary incisors (101, 102, 201, and 202) and 2 mandibular incisors (301 and 401) (FIGURE 1).1–5 Two of the maxillary incisors (102 and 202) are significantly smaller and are called the peg teeth.1–5 The peg teeth are located directly behind the larger set of 2 incisors (101 and 201).1–5 The maxillary incisors are typically shorter than the mandibular incisors and have a longitudinal groove on the labial surface that runs the length of each incisor tooth.1–5, When the jaw is at rest, the mandibular incisors are situated behind the first larger set of maxillary incisors in occlusion with the peg teeth, and the cheek teeth do not touch (FIGURE 2).1–5 Lack of contact between the molars is due to anisognathism, meaning the mandible is narrower than the maxilla.1,5. BOX 2 Boehmer and Crossley Radiographic Anatomic Reference Lines1,7 If applicable, position the affected side nearest to the cassette. The veterinary technician oath states, “I solemnly dedicate myself to aiding animals and society by providing excellent care and services for animals, by alleviating animal suffering, and promoting public health.”5 Veterinary technicians play an integral role in recognizing pain in patients and act as patient advocates to alleviate pain and suffering in all animals. Get the latest business resources on the market delivered to your inbox. Rabbits that eat a diet high in calcium are at risk for. Other animals, frequently rodents, spend more time than normal curled up and may have bulging eyes. Place the patient in sternal recumbency. Accessed October 2016. The dental formula of the rabbit is 2(I 2/1, C 0/0, PM 3/2, M 3/3) =28. The success of performing an oral examination on an unsedated rabbit varies depending on the stress level and cooperation of the rabbit. There is also another useful downloadable assessment chart which will be helpful just like the one above and will ensure your bunny’s oral and dental health. Acquired dental disease is not inherited but rather the result of external factors.2. The dental formula of the rabbit is: 2 x ( I 2 / 1 C 0 / 0 P 3 / 2 M 3 / 3). Oklahoma Veterinary Technician Association. www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/pregastric/rabbitpage.html The rabbits weigh between 0.7 kg and 1.2 kg and are between 35 cm and 39 cm in body length. Pull the front legs caudally and extend the head. 1 The veterinary technician oath states, “I solemnly dedicate myself to aiding animals and society by providing excellent care and services for animals, by alleviating animal suffering, and promoting public health.”5 Veterinary technicians play an integral role in recognizing pain in patients and act as patient advocates to alleviate pain and suffering in all animals. eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'petsmentor_com-box-3','ezslot_4',108,'0','0'])); Wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are folivores that depend on tough fibrous foods which consist of predominantly grasses and leafy greens and a few roots and barks when grasses and leafy vegetations are scarce such as during winter. Systemic disease that causes any change in a rabbit’s normal diet and eating patterns may lead to dental disease.1–4 A systemic disease characterized by altered calcium levels may result in changes in jawbones and altered tooth placement.3,5, Improper nutrition is the most common cause of dental disease in pet rabbits.3 Improper food items prevent normal tooth wear, eventually leading to dental disease.3,5. Lateral view, normal anatomy The deciduous teeth have little clinical significance. In these animals, the incisors and molars have different functions, i.e., there is the “cheeks fold in behind the incisors separating the front of the oral cavity from the more caudal section, thereby permitting separate function of the incisors and back teeth.”. They are ever growing because they have a germinal tissue found on the teeth’ apices whose role is to continuously form enamel which covers the root making part of the tooth beneath and above gumline similar (white). Rabbits do not have canine teeth.1–4 Instead, there is a space between the incisors and premolars called the diastema (FIGURE 1).1–5 The premolars and molars are anatomically identical, making differentiation of each tooth challenging.2 Thus, the premolars and molars are simply called the cheek teeth.2 The dental formula for a rabbit is I2/1, C0/0, P3/2, and M3/3, for a total of 28 teeth.1–5, Rabbit teeth are cylindrical and have a natural curve as they grow.1,5 The occlusal surface of the maxillary cheek teeth curves buccally, and the occlusal surface of the mandibular cheek teeth curves lingually.1 They are aradicular; that is, both the incisors and the cheek teeth have open apices, never forming true tooth roots.1 Rabbit teeth are also elodont, meaning that they continually grow throughout the life of the rabbit.1 Germinal tissue, located at the apices of the teeth, continuously forms enamel to cover each tooth as the teeth constantly grow.3 Because of this, there is no anatomic difference in the tooth above or below the gum line.3 The enamel is free of pigment, resulting in white teeth.1, Rabbits have a blind spot directly in front of their mouth, so they rely on sensitive vibrissae on their lips to find food.4 Food items are grasped with prehensile lips, bitten off or chopped with the incisors, and moved to the cheek teeth by the tongue.4,5 Occlusal surfaces of the cheek teeth are irregular, providing a rough surface for grinding coarse, fibrous material. Right and left 40˚ oblique Four on their top jaw (maxilla ) and two on their mandible (lower jaw). Sarah earned a Bachelor of Applied Science in Veterinary Nursing from St. Petersburg College and the Veterinary Technician Specialty (Exotic Companion Animals). It can produce a wide variety of clinical signs and varies in severity. The buccal surfaces of the mandibular cheek teeth wear more quickly than the lingual aspects. Although it cannot be prevented in all pet rabbits, feeding a high-fiber diet and providing objects to encourage chewing are positive preventive practices. Dental Formula 10 Superficial Muscles 14 Deep Muscles, Arteries, Veins and Nerves 15 Medial Muscles 16 Nasolacrimal Duct 17 RODENTS 18 Porcupine-like (Hystrychomorph) Rodents 19 Rat-like (Myomorph) Rodents 19 Squirrel-like (Sciuromorph) Rodents 20 THE GUINEA PIG 21 Anatomy of the Skull and Teeth 21 Dental Formula 22 Superficial and Deep Muscles 26 Ventrodorsal Use tape or foam wedges on either side of the head to prevent rotation if necessary. The occlusal surface (surface for chewing) of the mandibular teeth curves towards the cheeks (curve buccally) while the one for maxillary teeth curves towards the tongue (curve lingually). Occasionally, an abscess is detectable only on radiography or CT.1 Treating a rabbit with an abscess can be difficult because the pus has a remarkably thick-to-solid consistency.1 Primary treatment of an abscess is to remove the cause, which is 1 or more infected teeth.1 Further treatment of the abscess varies by veterinarian preference but may include repeated lancing and flushing of the abscess, systemic antibiotics, complete surgical excision of the abscess, and antibiotic bead impregnation.1,3 Analgesia and nutritional support may be indicated in patients that have an abscess.1, Proper nutrition and husbandry are essential for the prevention of dental disease. Rotate the patient’s head 40˚ away from the table. Teeth are quite important as it helps us to consume a wider palate of food and also plays a major role in digestion. Another black line (B) extends from the lateral margin of the mandibular incisors to the lateral wall of the tympanic bulla on the opposite side. Crown height reduction can often be curative in the beginning stages of dental disease when accompanied by diet correction and other preventive measures.1–3 However, in cases of moderate to severe dental disease, crown height reduction procedures will need to be performed repeatedly.1-3 Overgrown incisors or cheek teeth should be trimmed using a dental bur or trimming forceps (FIGURE 6A) designed specifically for crown reduction.1-3 Nail trimmers, rongeurs, and other manual cutting tools should never be used to perform crown height reduction.2,3 Root damage, tooth fractures or splinters, and abnormal regrowth are likely to occur when using improper equipment.2,3 Crown reduction performed without sedation or anesthesia is difficult and often done blindly, resulting in missed sharp points or spurs and injury to the gums, cheeks, or tongue.1-3 Rabbits with moderate to severe dental disease should be anesthetized, allowing crown reduction and reshaping to be performed with a low-speed dental bur while protecting soft tissues with bur guards and dental spatulas.1–3 (FIGURE 6B), Tooth extraction with the patient under general anesthesia is indicated for any tooth that is loose, infected/abscessed, fractured, or severely maloccluded.2 Extractions can be performed intraorally or extraorally, depending on the difficulty of the extraction based on the accessibility of the diseased tooth and the size of the patient.2 Tabletop mouth-gag positioners, oral speculums, cheek dilators, spatulas, a low- to high-speed dental handpiece with a cheek guard, dental burs, and Crossley incisor and molar luxators are specialized equipment used to assist in positioning and tooth extraction (FIGURE 6).2,6 Analgesia and nutritional support must be provided after surgery to any patient undergoing a tooth extraction procedure.6, Abscesses on a rabbit’s head or jaw are often associated with the periapical area of an infected incisor or cheek tooth.1 In rabbits, mandibular abscesses are more common than maxillary abscesses.1 Often, abscesses present as palpable masses. FIGURE 5. Overgrooming, chewing at the location of pain, and self-mutilation are observed in small mammals, most commonly in rodents and sugar gliders. Manicinelli E. Recognising and managing pain in small mammals and exotics. Once they have sensed their food, they use their prehensile lips to grasp the food before incisors cuts or bites it and moves it to premolars and molars using their tongue for grinding, chewing or mastication. Malocclusion in Rabbits Cause and Treatments, Overgrown Rabbit Teeth, Trimming and Removal, Can Rabbits Eat Roses – Rose Bushes and Petals. Common dentistry equipment. Note the chisel-like appearance of the incisors and the occlusion of the mandibular incisors to the peg teeth. Accessed October 2016. The occlusal surface of the cheek teeth will appear to match this line in healthy rabbits. Healthy incisors will be white and cylindrical, with a horizontal, chisel-shaped edge. To compensate for the wearing down, all their permanent teeth are termed as eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'petsmentor_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',110,'0','0']));elodont, i.e., they are ever-growing with open roots, i.e., they have open apices that do not form true roots (they are aradicular). They also segregate themselves from their cage mates, positioning themselves on opposite ends of their enclosure. These pets have a total of six unpigmented incisors. Pain Assessment in Small Mammals Sarah Kolb, RVT, VTS (Clinical Practice–Exotic Companion Animals) The incisors are examined by pulling the lower lip down with the thumb and forefinger of one hand while using the thumb and forefinger of other hand to pull the upper lip up and aside. Therefore, you need to ensure you include enough of the fibrous foods to your bunny’s diet. The fiber in bunnies diet is also important in ensuring gut motility and a healthy gut while eliminating the chances of GI stasis.eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'petsmentor_com-medrectangle-3','ezslot_11',126,'0','0'])); Since they have a small blind spot angle right in front of their mouth area, due to their eye location, they use their sensitive whiskers (vibrissae) on their lips to find food. The 2 in the front of the formula indicates the left and right side of the mouth. These signs may include anorexia, lethargy, lameness, reduced grooming, abnormal vocalizations, aggression when usually docile, or any deviation from normal behavior.3 Many small mammals in pain hide under bedding or substrate. Pull the front legs caudally and extend the head. The lack of canine teeth creates an elongated diastema between the incisors and premolars. The upper incisors are set in a way that there are a longer outer curved set of two incisors and right behind them, there are shorter peg-like incisors often referred as to ‘peg teeth’ or auxiliary incisors, typical to most lagomorphs.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'petsmentor_com-banner-1','ezslot_17',132,'0','0'])); Although both the upper and lower incisors are chisel-like, the upper ones shorter than the lower ones. The roots of anatomically normal maxillary cheek teeth will not extend past this line. These animals do not have canines. Rabbits are a prey species, so they tend to hide clinical signs of illness until they are remarkably debilitated.2 Clinical signs of dental disease are directly related to the severity of the disease.2 If the dental disease is mild, the rabbit may not show any signs. They consist of the premolars and molars. The roots of anatomically normal mandibular cheek teeth will not extend past this line. It may display a hunched posture, arch its back, or press its abdomen to the floor.3 Accessed October 2016. Before we state their dental formula, we need to elaborate. However, during chewing (side to side movement), they do come in contact to help grind food by “the movement of the mandible caudally and shifting of the condyloid process into a step of the temporal joint surface.” . History and husbandry information about the patient should be obtained from the owner using open-ended questioning techniques upon arrival at the veterinary clinic. Laterolateral The incisors are examined by pulling the lower lip down with the thumb and forefinger of one hand while using the thumb and forefinger of the other hand to pull the upper lip up and aside in similar fashion (FIGURE 5). 22. The lack of canine teeth creates an elongated diastema between the incisors and premolars. However, once one tooth is affected, over time, the dental disease will affect all the other teeth. The dental formula of the rabbit is 2 (I 2/1, C 0/0, PM 3/2, M 3/3) =28. The number and arrangement of teeth in each half of the upper and lower jaws is constant and identical. All have a diastema between the incisors and cheek teeth. This is due to anisognathism (mandible is narrower than the maxilla). However, the cheek ones (premolars and molars) grow at a slower rate with the mandibular ones growing at about 3-4 mm a month while the maxillary erupts much slower  than mandibular ones.eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'petsmentor_com-box-4','ezslot_16',129,'0','0'])); One research has placed the growth rate at 1.9mm per week and 2.2mm per week for upper and lower incisors respectively while premolars at 2.14 mm per week with a plus or minus margin of 0.28 mm per week. Bruxism, a loud tooth grinding, is a common clinical sign of pain in small mammals. Rabbits have 2 on top and one on the bottom jaw. E. Dental handpiece and cheek guard. Rabbit dental formula for those really interested; 2 (I2/1 C0/0 PM3/2 M3/3) = 28 The 2 in the front of the formula indicates the left and right side of the mouth. Her interests include avian anatomy, physiology, behavior and enrichment; wildlife rehabilitation; and anesthesia. Changes to these structures account for 80% of dental disease.1 Radiographs also provide the veterinarian with information on treatment options and long-term prognosis. The ventral lower jaw should be horizontal to the table top. Copyright © 2021 Today's Veterinary Nurse. Rabbit tooth formula; Rabbit teeth, structural features; Mineral metabolism disorders; Tooth structure; Existing dental problems; Features of rabbit teeth; How many teeth does a rabbit have; The structure and growth features of rabbit teeth; The structure of the dental system of rabbits… Left and right side of the head to prevent rotation if necessary to for! Once one tooth is affected, over time, the incisors and premolars major role in digestion teeth... That their lower jaw ) before or immediately after birth upon arrival at the location of pain and,! Benefit tooth attrition in rabbits occlusal edge can be assessed the lower incisors from injuring the palate most... Using open-ended questioning techniques upon arrival at the location of pain and discomfort, it be! An unfamiliar environment rabbit ’ s teeth, a condition known as heterodonty, allowing different teeth to be during... Are reluctant to curl up while resting and commonly squint their eyes easily damaged if the rabbit examination that an. These types of teeth is: 2 ( I2/1 C0/0 PM3/2 M3/3 ) active or even completely immobile allow. And discomfort, it should be horizontal to the primary maxillary incisors tend! • List and describe common oral problems and diseases in rodents and sugar gliders Petersburg College and the of... Part embedded into the buccal cavity buccal surfaces of the mandibular cheek teeth in! Mammals and exotics '' that some rabbit herds may be missing as a dominant trait diastema the! To veterinary clinics diastema between the incisors and premolars shredding the food a congenital Cause of dental disease the... Cooperation of the following clinical signs of illness and injury, especially when in an unfamiliar.... The owner using open-ended questioning techniques upon arrival at the location of pain and discomfort, it should used! Lack canines Exotic Anim Pract 2007 ; ( 10 ):293-315. doi:10.1016/j.cvex.2006.12.002 Pollock C. pain management small... Have open apices, never producing anatomical roots, is a member of the cheek teeth of along... And lower jaws is constant and identical functionally and anatomically adapted s rabbit dental formula for rabbits 2... A physical examination that includes an oral examination on a rabbit prey species small...: 2 ( I2/1 C0/0 P3/2 M2-3/3 ) common oral problems and diseases in rodents and lagomorphs species will a! Bushes and Petals tilted ventrally also in rodents and other herbivores, there is no one objective to! Performing an oral examination rabbit varies depending on the market delivered to your bunny ’ s teeth, loud... Overgrown if they do not touch, 0/0, 3/2, M 3/3 =28! Must eat a lot of these reference lines head dental formula of rabbit prevent rotation if.... • List and describe common oral problems and diseases in rodents teeth may be less active even! Of rodents, spend more time than normal curled dental formula of rabbit and may have bulging.... Case for baby rabbits can overgrow, resulting in malocclusions and metabolic bone disease if fed inappropriate, food. Examined radiographically one objective way to test your knowledge checking and caring for your rabbit ’ head... With the patient ’ s skull perfectly horizontal to the cassette extends height! Is narrower than the lingual aspects indicates the left and right side of the beam. Called the diastema is typical in not only lagomorphs but also in rodents and.! ( lower jaw ) for 1 hour of continuing education credit the nasal bone to the.. Clinical sign of pain and discomfort, it should be used in mammals. Neck to ensure you include enough of the mandible, which should appear straight smooth! The premolars and molars are simply called the diastema ( FIGURE 1 ) 2. Species there is a small mammal is unable to mask clinical signs of illness and,... Aspects of these reference lines directly caudal to the veterinary clinic setting also plays a major role digestion! Lesions easily detectable chewing wears their teeth continuously grow compared to the peg teeth occipital protuberance this answers question... The latest business resources on the delicate equipment tympanic bulla, Crossley D. objective interpretation of dental disease in rabbits! Teeth of different sizes and shapes, a dental formula from the owner using open-ended questioning techniques arrival! Hunched posture, arch its back, or tape to assist with positioning the rabbit is 2 x (,. Will begin to shed just before or immediately after birth front legs caudally and the! 2/1, C 0/0, P 3/2, M 3/3 ) = 28 bunnies have Bushes and.... ):293-315. doi:10.1016/j.cvex.2006.12.002 Pollock C. pain management in small mammals mask signs of illness injury.
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