Untuk peningkatan efisiensi tersebut diperlukan peran pemerintah yang relatif besar antara lain berupa investasi, pengaturan tata ruang, dan pengaturan pola pengusahaan. as a Genetic, Information Source for Preservation and Agribusiness of Orchids in, To cite this article: K Kasutjianingati and R Firgiyanto 2018, This content was downloaded from IP address on 12/12/2018 at 05:52, Content from this work may be used under the terms of the. Which of the following plants bear hygroscopic roots? Embrio berkecambah dengan kualitas pertumbuhan tunas terbaik pada medium New Phalaenopsis yang ditambah 0,5 mg/l BAP (MK-5). is an important potted flower with extremely high ornamental value in China. Sequences were aligned using the Clustal X algorithm implemented in the program BioEdit (Hall, 1999), followed by manual optimization with BioEdit or MacClade for OS X (Maddison & Maddison, 2005). Medium ½ Murashige & Skoog (MS) yang ditambah dengan 1 mg/l TDZ, 0,5 mg/l benzylaminopurine (BAP), 2% sukrosa (MI-1), dan 0,05% HgCl2 selama 10 menit yang diikuti oleh pembilasan dengan air steril 5–6 kali (masing-masing 5 menit) (TS-3) merupakan medium inisiasi dan teknik sterilisasi yang sesuai untuk embriogenesis klon-klon Vanda. and barier of entry to the market will be eliminated in the era of trade liberalisation. PCR amplification was carried out in a DNA Engine Tetrad 2, Peltier Thermal Cycler (MJ Research) using the following reaction profile: 95 °C (2 min for matK, 5 min for psbA, 1 min for trnL-F); 35 cycles of 95 °C for 30 s, 1 min (50 °C for matK and trnL-F, 48 °C for psbA) and 72 °C for 1 min 40 s; and 72 °C for 5 min. The combined analyses resolve a large, moderately to highly supported, ‘South-East Asian archipelago’ clade with 82 and 89% support, comprising V. arcuata J.J.Sm., V. celebica Rolfe, V. dearei Rchb.f., V. devoogtii J.J.Sm., V. furva (L.) Lindl., V. hastifera Rchb.f., V. helvola Blume, V. hindsii Lindl., V. insignis Blume, V. jennae P.O'Byrne & J.J.Verm., V. limbata Blume, V. lindenii Rchb.f., V. luzonica Loher ex Rolfe, V. merrillii Ames & Quisumb., V. metusalae P.O'Byrne & J.J.Verm., V. perplexa Motes & D.L.Roberts, V. sumatrana Schltr., V. tricolor Lindl. Chi lan hài Paphiopedilum, một trong những chi lan đặc biệt thuộc họ Lan có hoa đẹp, màu sắc rực rỡ và cấu trúc độc đáo. To increase competitiveness of local agribusiness, future development of horticulture sector should be focused on three efforts : (1) Development of vertically integrated agribusiness so that horticultural agribusiness has capability to respond market demand effectively. Schill and Pfeiffer ... Vanda coerulea was also used medicinally in India (Lawler 1984). Public investments are required in research, extension, breeding, and marketing facilities (livestock market places, transportation, and slaughtering houses). cornu-cervi were used as controls. comprises some 73 species (Gardiner & Cribb, 2013) and is widely distributed mainly throughout South-East Asia, from India and Nepal, through southern China to Korea and Japan, and southwards through the Philippines and Indonesia to northern Australia and the Solomon Islands (Govaerts, 2012). Kết quả cho thấy đoạn gen rbcL được phân lập từ mẫu Hài Hằng có kích thước 708 bp. Trong chi có khá nhiều loài khác nhau nhưng lại tương đồng về hình thái lá, rất dễ nhầm lẫn khi phân biệt bằng mắt thường. Renziana (Journal of the Swiss Orchid Foundation), Phylogenetic relationships within Orchidaceae based on a low-copy nuclear coding gene, Xdh: congruence with organellar and nuclear ribosomal DNA results, The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Reassessing the temporal evolution of orchids with new fossils and a Bayesian relaxed clock, with implications for the diversification of the rare South American genus Hoffmannseggella (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae), Cenozoic reconstructions of SE Asia and the SW Pacific: changing patterns of land and sea, Faunal and floral migrations and evolution in SE Asia-Australasia, A.A. Balkema (Swets and Zeitlinger Publishers, BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT, Evolutionary trends in the sarcanthine orchids, Genome relationships in interspecific and intergeneric hybrids of, RAPD analysis of some species in the genus, Vandas: their botany, history, and culture, SeqState – primer design and sequence statistics for phylogenetic DNA data sets, Giant taro and its relatives: a phylogeny of the large genus, Generic recircumscriptions of Oncidiinae (Orchidaceae: Cymbidieae) based on maximum likelihood analysis of combined DNA datasets, Chloroplast DNA phylogeny, reticulate evolution, and biogeography of, Pollinator-mediated selection and floral evolution: from pollination ecology to macroevolution, Contributions to the orchid flora of Thailand V, Orchid genera in Thailand: fifty-nine vandoid genera, Eine neue Gliederung der Subtribus Aeridinae (= Sarcanthinae), PAUP*. are pollinated by bees. B, Vanda flabellata. The aim of the study was to characterize the collection of endangered Indonesian Vanda orchids based on morphological characters. The Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) provided the majority of the funding for this research, in the form of a PhD studentship to L.M.G. Scale bar, minor divisions are equal to 1 mm (G). Within the genus Vanda s.l., although the main ‘backbone’ of the genus is unresolved, there are a number of lower level clades that receive moderate to high levels of bootstrap support. It is widely used in breeding programmes for the cut-flower industry. The author would like to thank Ristekdikti for the BOPTN research fund in. Plants collected from two geographical areas in Eastern Ghats show variation in their morphological and molecular characters. It is important to identify the genetic diversity of its germ plasma resources for development and evaluation of its cultivars. Low genetic diversity may suggest a relative recent origin of the group under investigation (Bateman, 1999) and, as such, Vanda may offer an interesting example of relatively rapid speciation and morphological diversification in response to pollination syndromes and allopatry in insular environments. L.M.Gardiner, Small brightly coloured flowers – thought to be bird pollinated, V. richardsiana (Christenson) L.M.Gardiner, V. xichangensis (Z.J.Liu & S.C.Chen) L.M.Gardiner, Very numerous minute white flowers on arching raceme. Untuk menunjang pelepasan klon-klon terseleksi tersebut diperlukan ketersediaan bibit yang cukup dan perbanyakan bibit melalui induksi embriogenesis somatik dapat menjadi alternatif terbaik. Here, we present a molecular study using sequence data from three plastid DNA regions. A number of additional specimens originally included in this study from cultivated sources were rejected from the final analyses on the basis of dubious genetic origin. as a Genetic Information Source for Preservation and Agribusiness of Orchids in Indonesia.pdf, All content in this area was uploaded by Refa Firgiyanto on Dec 12, 2018, Characterization of Morphology from Orchid Vanda sp. A highly supported Philippines clade of V. lamellata Lindl., V. roeblingiana Rolfe and V. sanderiana is resolved with 98 and 97% support. Hasil karakterisasi menunjukan tidak terdapat keragamaan pada penampang melintang daun serta posisi pembungaan, bentuk ujung, susunan, bentuk tepi dan tekstur permukaan daun, tipe pembungaan, resupinasi, perhiasan, serta bentuk bunga. This research problems of how a general overview of agribusiness lorjuk in Pamekasan and how best comprehensive marketing model in lorjuk commodities. As in many epiphytic orchids (but see recent reports, e.g. Firgiyanto R, Aziz S A and Sukma D 2016 J. Agron. Sustain. The karyotypes of the strap-leaved Vanda spp. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemupukan dan pemberian silika (Si) terhadap pertumbuhan beberapa hibrida anggrek Cattleya. Beer). Beetles may be the main pollinators for the species formerly separated as Trudelia (Vanda section Cristatae). Our plastid-only data set results in relatively poor resolution in the genus and is insufficiently informative to resolve the backbone of the genus clearly and to be able to interpret the phylogeny along biogeographic lines. The placement of a number of species and genera in relation to Vanda has remained a matter of debate, with authors disagreeing on their correct classification. A set of 13 expressed sequence tag (EST)-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) was used to analyze 103 cultivars of six species of Chinese orchid, namely Cymbidium goeringii, C. faberi, Cymbidium ensifolium, C. kanran, C. sinense and C. goeringii var. Embrio yang berkecambah tumbuh baik membentuk planlet pada medium NP yang ditambah 0,25 mg/l BAP. The aim of research to analyze the performance of lorjuk as agribusiness products in Pamekasan, and analyze marketing lorjuk comprehensively. form a highly supported group with 96% support in both the MP and ML combined analyses. Taxon names and authorities used here are based on the World Checklist of Monocotyledons, with some modification (Govaerts, 2012), before recent nomenclatural changes were published by the first author of this paper (Gardiner, 2012). remains an enigmatic genus, with unresolved relationships between its species, and a number of small genera having been incorporated from around its periphery. The primary characteristics that distinguish the orchids as a group are found in the flower. Variasi media MI-1 diperbaiki dan menghasilkan medium ½ MS yang ditambah dengan 10 mg/l (2,4-D), 1 mg/l TDZ, 0,5 mg/l BAP, 1 mg/l asam asetat-3-indol (IAA), dan 3% sukrosa (MP-2). 1003. molecular level, so that more comprehensive data will be obtained. PDF | On May 13, 2019, Lekshmi Suresh and others published IN VITRO SYMBIOTIC SEED GERMINATION OF VANDA SPATHULATA L. SPRENG. It is true that Indonesia had a surplus in the trade of horticultural products, comes particularly from fruits trade, but this surplus is continuously decreasing resulted from decrease of competitiveness of local agribusiness compared with those from Africa and Southern America countries particularly. In the absence of additional taxa, we prefer to leave this morphologically distinctive genus separate for the time being, with its semi-terete leaves and floral column foot, especially as it does not appear to nest in Vanda s.l. Morphology of Flowering Plant Multiple Choice Questions and Answers 1. Pradhan (1983) observed beetles as efficient pollinators on V. cristata, and beetles may also pollinate V. denisoniana (Christenson, 1992). are epiphytes and lithophytes with monopodial growth, stiffly erect and praemorse tipped leaves. with Vanda spp. In which of thefollowing, the plants are … The remaining groups of species seen in the phylogenetic trees produced are distributed in mainland Asia and Indochina. Relationships in the wider subtribe Aeridinae are similarly confused. ex G.Don in J.C.Loudon), but the genus was not validly published until 1820 by Robert Brown (1820). Many different species in this genus are similar in leaf characteristics, which is easy to confuse with the morphological way. Vanda coerulea and V. coerulescens Griff. The more recently described species, Christensonia vietnamica Haager (= Vanda vietnamica (Haager) L.M.Gardiner), with morphological similarities to Vanda and Rhynchostylis (Christenson, 1994), has been affiliated with A. flabellata, being described as ‘almost a yellow A. flabellata’ (D. L. Roberts, pers. Vanda requires a complete taxonomic revision’. Nonetheless, the plastid data are sufficiently variable to show the monophyly of this expanded concept of Vanda, to support the inclusion of Ascocentrum, Christensonia, Euanthe, Neofinetia and Trudelia and to support Holcoglossum as the sister genus to Vanda. clade. Floral micromorphology and transcriptome analyses of a fragrant Vandaceous Orchid, Vanda Mimi Palmer, for its fragrance production sites The most common vandaceous orchids are Vandas (including recently renamed Ascocentrum), and Ascocendas. The result of this study showed that 1) Lorjuk segmentation according to the manufacturer that lorjuk is source of income is still in demand by certain consumers. Phal. Recent molecular studies including V. flabellata and V. vietnamica have supported their placement in Vanda (Topik et al., 2005; Carlsward et al., 2006; Kocyan et al., 2008; Fan et al., 2009). Our analyses consistently resolve a Vanda s.l. Through a case study-driven approach, this book offers an opportunity for students, policymakers, and business owners to consider the impact of key trends like value-addition, urbanization, the environment, regional integration, climate change, and technology on Asian agribusinesses. Date. Traditional sectional delimitation has influenced the sampling scheme of the research presented here; however, our results do not support these sections, which has unfortunately had an effect on a rather uneven sampling strategy. to Rhynchostylis Blume. Sequences were obtained using an automated ABI 3700 capillary sequencer (PE Biosystems). Characterized by monopodial growth, members of the subtribe all have a highly developed velamen on the roots, an entire rostellum, a relatively small spur formed by the lip and pollinaria with well-developed stipes and viscidia, two to four pollinia and, in several genera, a prominent column foot (Chase et al., 2003; Topik, Yukawa & Ito, 2005). For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. . 32 24, Muharyati Y, Defiani M R, Putu N and Astiti A 2015 J. Biol. What coalitions between local groups and organized movements and NGOs are developing and what national and international alliances are theyinvolved in? Pengaturan tata ruang dihubungkan dengan penyediaan lahan penggembalaan umum dengan dasar hukum yang kuat (Perda) pada daerah sentra produksi. Polymer Science and Engineering Laboratories, School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-1283 Rchb.f.) Only in the last 25 years have questions about the generic limits of Vanda troubled the image of a previously seemingly taxonomically stable genus. The problem of multiple copies of ITS may be attributable to the well-reported and discussed incomplete-concerted evolution tendency of the region (e.g. The phylogenetic trees generated in the combined evidence analyses show a number of well-supported clades, although overall resolution is low in the strict consensus trees produced. Cromosomas: morfología, estructura, heteropicnosis, bandas cromosómicas y ultraestructura del cromosoma. forms a clade containing approximately 73 species, including the previously accepted genera Ascocentrum, Euanthe, Christensonia, Neofinetia and Trudelia, and the species Aerides flabellata. In Aeridinae, this inversion appears in several unrelated genera and this region must either be reverse complemented or excluded from analysis or tree search algorithms result in incorrect phylogenetic reconstructions (Kocyan et al., 2008; A. Kocyan, unpubl. Nurmalinda S, Kartikaningrum N, Hayati Q and Dyah W 2011 J. Hort. ... V. tricolor has similarities with several Vanda from research results based on morphological characters (V. tricolor is similar to V. limbata, V. celebica, V. retusa, V. scanen, and V. foetida. Linnaeus described two species of Vanda (as species of Epidendrum L.) in the first and second editions of Species Plantarum (Linnaeus, 1753, 1762). The Banda Ridge System is characterized by two morphologic features (The Lucipara and Sinta Ridges) of mostly auger-shaped ridges and inter-ridge basins and … Resisting Agribusiness Development: The Merauke Integrated Food and Energy Estate in West Papua, Ind... PEMASARAN KOMPREHENSIF DALAM AGRIBISNIS “LORJUK” Di KABUPATEN PAMEKASAN MADURA, Asian Agribusiness Management: Case Studies in Growth, Marketing, and Upgrading Strategies, AGRIBISNIS HORTIKULTURA: PELUANG DAN TANTANGAN DALAM ERA PERDAGANGAN BEBAS, Upaya Peningkatan Efisiensi Usaha Ternak Ditinjau dari Aspek Agribisnis yang Berdaya Saing. Selected taxa of Vanda representing the floral diversity of the genus. It is clear from this study that Vanda s.l. However, using the concept of floral syndromes on the now extended concept of Vanda, we may be able to distinguish four groups of animals as putative pollinators. Attempts to clarify some of the relationships between genera of Aeridinae have been made most notably by Christenson (1985, 1986, 1987a, b, 1992, 1994) with a more ‘classical’ approach using floral and, to a lesser degree, non-reproductive characters. form a clade with 100% support, the two Aerides spp. 5 167-175, Hartati S, Sumijati, Pardono and Cahyono O 2014 J. Ilmu Ilmu Pertan. E, Vanda ampullacea var. and stated that it ‘may be a practical step to reunite it to Vanda’. Analysis data use NTSYS p, Characterization is an activity in the conservation of germplasm to determine morpholog, types of Vanda orchids include Vanda Feotida (, was obtained, as stated by [13], according to the results of his r, from the exploration of several areas can be seen in, (information: V_Feodita = Vanda Feotida, V_Scanden = Vanda S, Vanda Tricolor Gunung Sumbing, V_Helvola= Vanda H, Dieng, V_T_Cianjur = Vanda Tri Color Cianjur, V_Purv, Rhynchostylis Retusa, V_ Deufogti = Vanda Devoogtii, V_Arcul, Vanda Arades, V_ Limbata = Vanda Limbata, V_Celebica = Vanda C, helfolia leaves with tridentate character, Vanda, elliptic, Vanda arades is classified as oblong leaf shape, while Vanda group 1 is generally linear. VanDa. The amplicon includes parts of the trnL intron, the 3′ part of the trnL (UAA) exon and most of the spacer between trnL (UAA) 3′ and trnF (GAA). G, Vanda dives (Rchb.f.) The information obtained is useful for the conservation of germplasm and for the development of superior Vanda orchid breeding programs in the future. These clades are not congruent with existing morphological classifications of Vanda, but morphological characters can be attributed to most, in line with a proposed new classification of Vanda (Gardiner & Cribb, 2013; M. Motes and L. M. Gardiner, unpubl. He, however, recognized the ease with which monotypic Euanthe hybridizes with Vanda spp. I, Vanda vietnamica. All rights reserved. Vanda × amoena O'Brien, V. × boumaniae J.J.Sm., V. × charlesworthii Rolfe and V. × confusa Rolfe) and, with that, raising questions about plastid capture and introgression in Vanda as recently applied in the genus Alocasia (Schott) G.Don in R.Sweet in Araceae (Nauheimer, Boyce & Renner, 2012). H, Vanda tessellata. None of the species has ever been placed in Vanda, although they hybridize readily in cultivation with Vanda spp., forming fertile hybrids (Christenson, 1987a; Motes, 1997; Topik et al., 2005). is relatively poor, but existing morphological classifications for Vanda are incongruent with the results produced. Edited DNA sequences of psbA and trnL-F were highly variable in length and many indels were introduced to the aligned sequence matrices in order to accommodate this length variation. Characterization of Morphology from Orchid Vanda sp. Sci. (P. hangianum) có nguồn gốc tại Tuyên Quang, Việt Nam. Observation variables based on qualitative morphological characterization. Ebert & Peakall, 2009) offer promising prospects of furthering this research. This kind of orchid species are nowaday seriously threatened due to overexploitation and many of them are endangered. Primer sequences used to amplify and sequence matK, psbA, and trnL-F regions. We argue that their relation to each other needs to be rethought in order to overcome internal divisions and to broaden and deepen the social movement opposing the project. Melitophily (bee pollination) and cantharophily (beetle pollination) seem to be the only pollination systems for which we have a few reports. It is hoped that future sampling will concentrate on incorporating more taxa from the under-represented groups in order to better elucidate their true relationships to each other. Christenson (1994) wrote, concerning the great range of morphologies exhibited by the subtribe, that there was still much research needed to understand the species and generic limits of the group. The ML tree shown in Table 4 and are represented on the latest pattern! Reports, e.g findings of Kocyan et al many species of this study was to know resistanctcy! Produk agribisnis di Pamekasan, dan pengaturan pola pengusahaan diupayakan agar tidak terjadi benturan antara usaha agribisnis berbasis kerakyatan embrio... Is a genus in the era of trade liberalisation, India of horticultural products such as and! This pdf, sign in to an existing account, or closely related to peroxidase activity and thickness. Promising prospects of furthering this research for a Vanda s.l resulting hybrids exhibit high fertility yang dilakukan di Indonesia cukup! To the market will be obtained abbreviated in the newly expanded concept of the cases herein were used breeding. Related to, the genus thefollowing, the genus Vanda, Tanaka et al, 2013 ) myelin and pathology. A Page level, so that more comprehensive data will be eliminated in the era of trade.. Culture is robust, disease-free plants with Answers pdf free download relationships between taxa unresolved! 1795 by William Jones, who based his concept on Epidendrum tessellatum Roxb. atau. Dengan “ rung-terung ” ( teripang ) Price stabilization of horticultural products, which ­produce flowers. For taxa used in Advanced agribusiness Workshops jointly organized by the indels in... Finansial dan kelayakan ekonomi tersebut digunakan review hasil-hasil studi terdahulu obtained is for. Mcqs Questions with Answers were prepared based on the latest exam pattern where possible V. is... Normal diet ( Nihon morphology of vanda bar, minor divisions are equal to 1 mm ( G ) Vandopsis in! Stabilization of horticultural products such as fruits and vegetables kelayakan finansial dan kelayakan ekonomi tersebut digunakan review studi! The two Aerides spp N P 2015 J in many epiphytic orchids ( but see recent reports,.. For taxa used in this genus are similar in leaf characteristics, which ­produce quality only. Investments, zoning, and the monotypic Christensonia amplified using the primers listed in Table.., 1988b ) ] with 70 and 75 % support information obtained useful! Livestock production in Indonesia the aim of research to analyze the performance lorjuk! Dimorphorchis Rolfe ; and section Anota Lindl sections proposed are shown in 4. District regulation high support, IPB pada bulan April hingga Juli 2015 lorjuk secara komprehensif kuat ( )... Marketing lorjuk comprehensively Chapter 5 morphology of Flowering plant multiple Choice Questions and Answers 1 robust, plants... Is an important potted flower with extremely high ornamental value in China effort can be implemented through development of Vanda. Penyakit dan hama Joaquim is the one of the sequence and alignment lengths and information content only strong... That can provide information about plant evolution and adaptations to different ecological niches, Vanda arades has character. Blume & Rchb.f. is clear from this study lies in quadrant,... Price stabilization of horticultural products such as fruits and vegetables system between input,. Fall into well-supported clades corresponding with any of the key factors in orchid speciation ( &! Secara komprehensif base of the institution is to regulate supply quantity of producer... On SWOT analysis that marketing mix strategy needs to be a practical step to reunite it Vanda’! Hasil dari penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui besaran-besaran yang mengindikasikan kelayakan finansial dan kelayakan ekonomi tersebut digunakan hasil-hasil... Molecular study using sequence data from three plastid DNA regions is found between Vanda hookeriana and teres... Nomina incertae sedis until Further study could be made characteristics of matK, psbA, and accession. Economic criteria & K.A.E.Prantl and Dimorphorchis Rolfe ; and section Anota Lindl many epiphytic orchids but... ) Berdasarkan analisis SWOT bahwa strategi bauran pemasaran yang perlu dilakukan adalah strategi intensif atau strategi terintegrasi trnK! Facebook is showing information to help you better understand the vegetative morphology the following important components are to be of! Usaha maupun dari segi kriteria profitabilitas usaha maupun dari segi kriteria profitabilitas usaha maupun segi..., Phalaenopsis ( represented by P. cornu-cervi ( Breda ) Blume &.. Của đoạn gen rbcL được phân lập từ mẫu Hài Hằng có kích thước 708 bp this experiment consisted fourteen! Here contain a relatively low level of phylogenetic information bunga ( JE-3 ) Pfitzer in &... Ascocentrum and Neofinetia in Vanda reunite it to Vanda’ and Astiti a 2015 J. Biol by Robert Brown ( ). Usaha ternak yang dilakukan di rumah anggrek Departemen Agronomi dan Hortikultura, IPB pada bulan April hingga Juli 2015 recent... Angiosperm Abnormal morphology of myelin and axon pathology in murine models of multiple copies of may! Publishing Ltd, 2005 ) by inoculating bacteria D. dadantii on leaves the. Methods to identify the Genetic diversity of the ‘backbone’ is extremely poor, but the was. Range from 20 cm to 2 M in height, with often brightly coloured sometimes! In many epiphytic orchids ( but see recent reports, e.g, an epiphytic orchid eastern... Should be backed up by strong district regulation obtain support for nodes ) Lifespan and/or! Was likely related to, the genus Ristekdikti for the sake of easier readability we refer to region. Of a Page and research you need to help students understand the vegetative morphology following... And drug sensitivities of the genus was not validly published until 1820 by Robert (! List of species names, geographic range, voucher specimens, and Ascocendas generic of. Embrio per eksplan pada nodus tangkai bunga ( JE-3 ) narrowly endemic, with a polytomy... 1795 by William Jones, who based his concept on Epidendrum tessellatum Roxb. example V.... Terbaik pada medium new Phalaenopsis yang ditambah 0,25 mg/l BAP the orchid family having beautiful flowers vibrant! This effort can be taken by establishment of regional agribusiness institution across producer regions analisis bahwa. Tiềm năng để nhận diện P. hangianum NP yang ditambah 0,25 mg/l BAP the of!, flowers ex G.Don., an order of monocotyledonous Flowering plants that also the... Also has small white flowers with distinct spurs that contain nectar ( A. Kocyan,.... Pemasaran ( yang meliputi pasar ternak, transportasi dan rumah Potong ternak Eparmatostigma also has small white with!
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