The impulse of religious feeling or liturgical usage must have been the prevailing positive factors in the decision. It is an incontestable fact that the sacredness of certain parts of the Palestinian Bible (Esther, Ecclesiastes, Canticle of Canticles) was disputed by some rabbis as late as the second century of the Christian Era (Mishna, Yadaim, III, 5; Babylonian Talmud, Megilla, fol. As a touchstone by which uncanonical and canonical works were discriminated, an important influence was that of the Pentateuchal Law. These exegetes place much reliance on St. Justin Martyr's statement that the Jews had mutilated Holy Writ, a statement that rests on no positive evidence. Critical opinion as to date ranged from c. 165 B.C. The Jewish Bible of today is composed of three divisions, whose titles combined form the current Hebrew name for the complete Scriptures of Judaism: Hat-Torah, Nebiim, wa-Kéthubim, i.e. The countless manuscript copies of the Vulgate produced by these ages, with a slight, probably accidental, exception, uniformly embrace the complete Old Testament. This was an era of construction, a turning-point in the history of Israel. But the Catholic Scripturists who admit an Esdrine Canon are far from allowing that Esdras and his colleagues intended to so close up the sacred library as to bar any possible future accessions. The Greek kanon means primarily a reed, or measuring-rod: by a natural figure it was employed by ancient writers both profane and religious to denote a rule or standard. First, the strict canon and authoritative source of truth is the Jewish Old Testament, Esther excepted. To characterize a book which held no acknowledged place in the divine library, the rabbis spoke of it as "defiling the hands", a curious technical expression due probably to the desire to prevent any profane touching of the sacred roll. But even Philo, while indicating acquaintance with the deutero literature, nowhere cites it in his voluminous writings. No unfavourable argument can be drawn from the loose, implicit character of these citations, since these Apostolic Fathers quote the protocanonical Scriptures in precisely the same manner. the prophetico-historical books: Josue, Judges, Samuel, (I and II Kings), and Kings (III and IV Kings)] and the Latter Prophets (Isaias, Jeremias, Ezechiel, and the twelve minor Prophets, counted by the Hebrews as one book). To the Jews of the Middle Ages the Torah was the inner sanctuary, or Holy of Holies, while the Prophets were the Holy Place, and the Kéthubim only the outer court of the Biblical temple, and this medieval conception finds ample basis in the pre-eminence allowed to the Law by the rabbis of the Talmudic age. The Old Testament is the first two-thirds of the Christian Bible with the last third being the New Testament. With its text went Jerome's prefaces disparaging the deuterocanonicals, and under the influence of his authority the West began to distrust these and to show the first symptoms of a current hostile to their canonicity. Since the traditionalists infer the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch from other sources, they can rely for proof of an early collection of these books chiefly on Deuteronomy, xxxi, 9-13, 24-26, where there is question of a books of the law, delivered by Moses to the priests with the command to keep it in the ark and read it to the people on the feast of Tabernacles. This "book of the law" was practically identical with Deuteronomy, and its recognition or canonization consisted in the solemn pact entered into by Josias and the people of Juda, described in 2 Kings 23. This period exhibits a curious exchange of opinions between the West and the East, while ecclesiastical usage remained unchanged, at least in the Latin Church. The existing oldest representative manuscripts are not entirely identical in the books they contain. Its three constituent bodies, the Law, Prophets, and Hagiographa, represent a growth and correspond to three periods more or less extended. To meet this radical departure of the Protestants, and as well define clearly the inspired sources from which the Catholic Faith draws its defence, the Council of Trent among its first acts solemnly declared as "sacred and canonical" all the books of the Old and New Testaments "with all their parts as they have been used to be read in the churches, and as found in the ancient vulgate edition". The whole Biblical Canon therefore consists of the canons of the Old and New Testaments. Only later was the infallible voice to come, and then it was to declare that the Canon of the Synagogue, though unadulterated indeed, was incomplete. You’ll miss the best part: reading through the books of the Bible yourself! The whole Biblical Canon therefore consists of the canons of the Old and New Testaments. However the case may have been for the Prophets, the preponderance of evidence favours a late period as that in which the Hagiographa were closed, a period when the general body of Scribes dominated Judaism, sitting "in the chair of Moses", and alone having the authority and prestige for such action. The argument is not without a certain force; the New Testament undoubtedly shows a preference for the Septuagint; out of the 350 texts from the Old Testament, 300 favour the language of the Greek version rather than that of the Hebrew. This "book of the law" was practically identical with Deuteronomy, and its recognition or canonization consisted in the solemn pact entered into by Josias and the people of Juda, described in IV Kings, xxiii. The Alexandrian tradition is represented by the weighty authority of Origen. The scope of an article on the sacred Canon may now be seen to be properly limited regarding the process of. It has been suggested that this article or section be, Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Canon of the Holy Scriptures, https://en.wikisource.org/w/index.php?title=Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Canon_of_the_Old_Testament&oldid=5307164, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The order of books copies that of the Council of Florence, 1442, and in its general plan is that of the Septuagint. It is evident, in addition, that no book was admitted which had not been composed in Hebrew, and did not possess the antiquity and prestige of a classic age, or name at least. Philo, while indicating acquaintance with the deutero literature, only the last speaks... Lips., iii, 57 ; De migratione Abrahæ, 11,299 ; ed narratives... Testament known as the Septuagint Canon was finished Numbers the books of the above-mentioned Samaritan Canon INCLUDING... Canon was one essentially chronological total of 39 books in most Christian Bibles needed! 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